August 22 King Charles raises his standard at Nottingham and war begins.
September 23 Prince Rupert defeats the Parliamentarians at Powick Bridge.
October 23 The king defeats the Earl of Essex at the battle of Edgehill.
October 29 Royalists occupy Oxford, which becomes their capital and chief mint.
November 13 The Royalists are turned back from London at Turnham Green, ensuring the war would continue.


January 19 Battle of Braddock Down. Royalists dominate Cornwall.
March 19 Battle of Hopton Heath. Northhampton defeats Gell and Brereton.
March 30 Battle of Seacroft Moor. Goring defeats Sir Thomas Fairfax.
June 29 Battle of Adwalton Moor. Newcastle destroys the Parliamentarian army of the Fairfaxes.
July 5 Battle of Lansdown. Hopton defeats Waller.
July 13 Battle of Roundaway Down. Wilmot, Hopton and Prince Maurice destroy Waller’s army.

July 27

Battle of Gainsborough. Cromwell defeats Cavendish.
September 20 Battle of First Newbury. King Charles fails to stop Essex.
  September 25 Parliament forms Solemn League and Covenant with Scotland.
October 11 Battle of Winceby. Manchester, Sir Thomas Fairfax and Cromwell defeat Sir William Widrington and Sir John Henderson.


January 19 The Scots invade England in support of Parliament.
January 25 Battle of Nantwich. Sir Thomas Fairfax defeats Lord Byron.
June 29 Battle of Cropredy Bridge. The king defeats Waller.
July 2 Battle of Marston Moor. Prince Rupert and Newcastle defeated by the Scots and Parliamentarians under the Earl of Leven, Manchester and Fairfax.
August 21 Battle of Beacon Hill. The king defeats Essex.
October 27 Battle of Second Newbury. Standoff between the King and Manchester and Waller.


  April The New Model Army is formed by Parliament from the armies of Essex, Manchester and Waller.
June 14 Battle of Naseby. The New Model Army under Sir Thomas Fairfax and Cromwell defeats the king.
July 10 Battle of Langport. Sir Thomas Fairfax defeats Goring.
September 24 Battle of Rowton Heath. Royalists defeated.


March 21 Stow-on-the-Wold. Last Royalist army surrenders.
May 5 King surrenders to the Scots.



August 17-19 Battle of Preston. Cromwell defeats the Duke of Hamilton’s Royalists and Scots.


January 30 Charles I beheaded. Cromwell arrives in Ireland.



September 3 Battle of Dunbar. Cromwell defeats Leslie and the Scots Covenanters.


August 26 Battle of Wigan. Lilburne defeats Lord Derby’s forces.
August 28 Battle of Upton-on-Severn. Lambert defeats Massey’s Royalists.
September 3 Battle of Worcester. Cromwell defeats King Charles II.
October 15 Charles II leaves Shoreham Creek for exile.

Original Panel

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Map of Victories

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How England and Wales changed from 1643 to 1644

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